Manuscripts must be written in English. For editors and reviewers to accurately assess the work presented in your manuscript you need to ensure the English language is of sufficient quality to be understood.
Authorship confers credit and has important academic, social, and financial implications. Authorship also implies responsibility and accountability for published work. The APE recommends that authorship be based on the following four criteria:
When we encounter disagreements among authors we follow guidance from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).
To facilitate rapid publication and minimize administrative costs, however, only online submissions will be accepted. If you encounter any problems during the online submission process, contact firstname.lastname@example.org for support.
Submission of manuscript implies that the work described has not been published previously, or is under consideration for publication elsewhere. Manuscripts must be read and approved by all co-authors prior to submission. Authors must agree to allow editing of the article to improve readability. Galley proofs of accepted manuscripts will be sent to the author(s) prior to publication, unless otherwise indicated.
Units of measurement should be presented clearly and concisely using System International (SI) units.
Manuscripts should be submitted in one of the following formats: .doc, .docx or .pdf. Microsoft Word documents should not be locked or protected. Use double line spacing. Editable files are required for processing in production. If your manuscript contains any non-editable files (such as PDFs) you will be required to re-submit an editable file if your manuscript is accepted.
The title page should include:
The manuscript should contain an abstract. The abstract should be self-contained and citation-free, which should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results, and major conclusions.
keywords should be a concise summary of your paper's content. We recommend three to five keywords.
This section should be succinct, with no subheadings.
This section should contain sufficient details to allow all the procedures and experiments described in the manuscript to be independently repeated. The content can be divided into multiple subsections, as required.
The results section should provide clear description of the findings of the research arranged in a logical sequence without bias or interpretation.
This section should explain the significance of the results and should place them into the broader context of the current literature. The Discussion may contain subheadings to highlight important areas that are expanded on in the text.
This section should clearly and concisely describe the main conclusions of the work and their significance.
Acknowledgments should be included at the end of the paper, before the list of references. This section should also list all supporting grants, including the full names of funding organizations and grant numbers, where appropriate.
All authors are required to declare what support they received to carry out their research. The Funding Statement includes the funding information declared by the authors. Please include relevant grant numbers. Please also include this sentence: “The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.” If this statement is not correct, you must describe the role of any sponsors or funders, and amend the aforementioned sentence as needed. Inaccurate information about funding discovered after publication may require a correction.
In the interests of transparency and to help readers to form their own judgements of potential bias, authors must declare any competing financial and non-financial interests in relation to the work described. All submitted manuscripts must include a ‘competing interests’ section at the end of the manuscript listing all competing interests (financial and non-financial). If there is no conflict of interest, authors should state that “The author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper.”
Editors and reviewers are also required to declare any competing interests and may be excluded from the peer review process if a competing interest exists.
All research involving human or animal subjects must have been approved by the authors’ Institutional Review Board (IRB) or by equivalent ethics committee(s), and must have been conducted according to the principles expressed in the Declaration of Helsinki. Authors should be able to submit, upon request, a statement from the IRB or ethics committee indicating approval of the research. Subjects must have been properly instructed and have indicated that they consent to participate by signing the appropriate informed consent paperwork. If consent was verbal instead of written, or if consent could not be obtained, the authors must explain the reason in the manuscript, and the use of verbal consent or the lack of consent must have been approved by the IRB or ethics committee. In the case of any animal experiments, the authors must provide a full description of any anesthetic or surgical procedure used, as well as evidence that all possible steps were taken to avoid animal suffering at each stage of the experiment. We reserve the right to reject work that we believe has not been conducted to a high ethical standard, even when formal approval has been obtained.
Authors are responsible for ensuring that each reference is accurate and complete. All references should be numbered consecutively and citations of references in text should be identified using numbers in square brackets (e.g., “as discussed by ”; “as discussed elsewhere [2, 3]”). All references must be cited within the text; otherwise, the references will be removed.Examples:
Citation of journal articles:
(Six or fewer authors)
 Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL.
Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7.
(More than six authors)
 Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002;935(1-2):40-6.Preparation of Figures
All figures should be cited in the paper in a consecutive order. Figures should be supplied in either vector art formats (Illustrator, EPS, WMF, FreeHand, CorelDraw, PowerPoint, Excel, etc.) or bitmap formats (Photoshop, TIFF, GIF, JPEG, etc.). For initial manuscript submissions, figures must be of sufficient digital quality for editorial assessment and peer review. Please note, however, if the manuscript is accepted, authors will be asked to provide high-resolution figures.Proofs
All manuscripts will undergo some editorial modification, so it is important to check proofs carefully. The corresponding author will be sent an email asking them to check their proofs. The email will either have a link for authors to access their PDF proofs online, or will have a PDF proof attached. To avoid delays in publication, proofs should be checked and returned within 3 working days.